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Welding basics

Welding is one of the most essential processes in the industry for joining metal parts. There are many welding methods, each characterized by different features and applications. In this article, we will look at the most popular types of welding and describe their advantages and disadvantages. 

What is the 135 welding method?

Welding method 135, or MAG welding, involves using an electric arc between the welding wire and the surface to be welded. In this process, welding wire and shielding gas are supplied for welding from external sources. This method is particularly effective for welding stainless steel and aluminum.

What are the advantages of 135-method welding? 

  • Good weld quality.
  • The process is easy to learn.
  • Fast welding time.

However, to get the best weld quality, the equipment must be set up carefully and choose the right welding parameters, such as current and voltage.

What is the TIG welding method?

TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method is a technique that uses a flameless electric arc and a tungsten electrode. The main advantage of this welding method is the ability to precisely control the temperature. This is especially important when welding thin parts or delicate materials such as aluminum or copper. TIG welding uses an inert gas, which protects the welded material from the damaging effects of oxygen and nitrogen. However, this method requires the welder to have good precision and experience, as it is not an easy technique to master.

Applications of the TIG method

The TIG welding method is used in various fields, such as:

  • Automotive industry - for welding aluminum in car bodies.
  • Aerospace industry - for welding magnesium alloys and aluminum in aircraft structures.
  • Chemical industry - for welding environmentally sensitive pipes and containers.
  • In addition, the TIG method is also used for welding structural components in the shipbuilding industry and for the manufacture of aluminum and stainless steel furniture hardware.

How does the 111 welding method work?

Welding method 111 is one of the oldest methods still used in some industries. This welding technique uses an electrode with a core of metal powder. In addition, welding with 111 electrodes requires special knowledge and skills since the process is susceptible to the environment.

What to use the 111 welding method for?

The 111 welding electrode consists of a metal powder core and a shield that protects the weld from the environment. This electrode is extremely sensitive to the water content in the air, so it requires special welding precautions. Welding with the 111 electrodes is difficult, but thanks to its flexibility, it allows the joining of virtually any type of material, including:

  • steel, 
  • aluminum, 
  • copper
  • brass.

How does 111 welding work?

Welding with 111 electrodes involves melting the electrode and the substrate using an electric arc. During welding, the electrode gradually melts, producing a steel weld. To ensure a durable and strong weld, the welder must be skilled at controlling the temperature and welding time. The process requires a lot of skill and experience, but it produces very durable and strong joints. 

What are the advantages of the 111 welding method?

The 111 welding method is used in many industries, including automobiles, ships, construction machinery, electrical equipment, etc. Its advantages are certainly: 


Durable and strong welds.

Unfortunately, it also has disadvantages, such as difficulty handling the process and the mandatory provision of appropriate working conditions. 

What is the 141 welding method?

Welding method 141, also known as argon-shielded tungsten electrode welding, is a gas welding method that involves melting a tungsten electrode and base material using a high-temperature electric arc. Argon shielding prevents the base material from reacting with the air components, making it possible to obtain a high-quality weld free of metallic impurities.

Application of the 141 method

Method 141 is mainly used for welding stainless steel and light metal alloys such as aluminum. It is particularly suitable for welding parts of thin thickness and small size, as it allows welding to be carried out in a precise and controlled manner. It is most often used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, requiring a very clean weld and minimal metallic impurities.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the 141 method?

The advantages of this method are:

  • The high quality of the weld.
  • The precise execution of welding.
  • The possibility of using different materials for welding.

The 141 method also allows controlled heat delivery, which minimizes the deformation of the welded materials. The disadvantage of this method are cost, as it requires specialized equipment and materials. In addition, the process is time-consuming and requires special skills on the operator's part.

What is the 136 welding method?

Welding method 136 is another of the welding methods that is gaining in popularity. However, we must remember that it is not a technique for beginners. Nevertheless, if someone already has some welding experience, he can try his hand at 136. 

How does welding method 136 work? 

Welding in method 136 is done in three basic positions: 

  • P - is welding with the top edge of the workpiece. 
  • PF - is vertical welding from top to bottom.
  • PB - involves welding from the bottom up. 

The choice of position depends on the shape and size of the workpiece to be welded. The diameter of the electrode should be matched to the thickness of the element to be welded, usually, electrodes with a diameter of 2 to 5 mm are used. The welding current depends on the thickness of the workpiece, and the speed of the electrode movement depends on the performance, but in any case, any test should be carried out before welding. 

What are the advantages of the 136 method?

  • Good mechanical properties of the weld.
  • Ability to weld in different positions.
  • Speed and efficiency.

What are the disadvantages of method 136?

  • The need for good quality of the welded object.
  • Precision and accuracy are required.
  • High welding temperature promotes deformation of parts.

What is welding method 138?

Welding method 138 is considered one of the most durable welding techniques. Compared to other welding methods, 138 can be used to weld large and thick parts. In this technique, the electrode is made of an additive metal fused into the base material. Method 138 is most often used to join stainless steel, as it provides a perfect bond between the materials.

Welding method 138 is also used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Due to its durability, welding joints formed using this technique can withstand large pressure and temperature changes.

In addition to durability, the above method also offers high corrosion resistance. Interestingly - comparing it to other methods - the 138 technique creates a welding joint without any additional material to provide corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, the process is complicated and requires years of experience to master it thoroughly.

MIG MAG method

The MIG MAG method is one of the most popular welding methods today. It is an arc welding technique that involves heating and melting the material to be welded and then joining it with other parts using a welding wire that is fed with electric current.

What are the advantages of the MIG MAG method?

  • It is a fast and efficient welding method that saves time and money.
  • It can be used to weld various materials, such as steel, aluminum, copper, etc.
  • It provides a high-quality weld and sufficient bending and tensile strength.
  • It is easy to use, allowing workers to be quickly trained.

These advantages make the MIG MAG method often used in mass production, construction, automotive, and many other fields.

How does the 121 welding method work?

Welding method 121 is a technique that is characterized by the fact that the weld is made in a protective shield and the weld is made of electrode wires. It is used where high-quality welding is required, such as in the manufacture of valves, pipes, and pressure vessels. 121 welding uses low-frequency alternating current (about 50 Hz), increasing the welding process and stability. During welding, the electrode wire is gradually immersed in the melting topping at the weld level, making obtaining a high-quality joint possible. It is worth noting that the technique above requires the welder to have precise skills in operating the power supply and welding equipment. A good mastery of this welding method makes it possible to carry out efficient welding work and achieve high quality welds.

Its disadvantage is the high price of the equipment, which is an important factor in choosing a welding method for a particular application.

What is the LF welding method?

The LF welding method, or gas-shielded welding, is one of the newest welding methods. Despite its youth, it has already gained recognition among specialists in various industries. It is a method that involves welding materials in a gas shield, which provides the right conditions for making a durable, strong, and safe joint. 

What are the advantages of LF welding? 

  • makes it possible to weld metals of different thicknesses and shapes while preserving their properties,
  • ensures low material consumption,
  • guarantees the possibility of welding in any position,
  • allows to obtain a smooth joint surface.

LF welding method also means safety. The risk of explosion or fire is reduced due to gas shielding, which provides the right atmosphere around the welding area. This, in turn, translates into more excellent safety at work, both for the welder and the entire plant.

Ground arc welding method

The arc welding method, also known as electric or arc welding, is one of the oldest ways to join metal parts. The name comes from the phenomenon of the formation of an electric arc between the electrode and the material to be welded. Arc welding joins various steel, copper, and aluminum types from 1 to 50 mm thick. The technique is relatively simple but requires experience and precision in adjusting the electrode position and welding speed.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of arc welding?

The advantages of arc welding include:

  • Low cost of equipment and materials.
  • Ability to weld different types of steel.
  • Ease of operation and maintenance.

Nevertheless, earth arc welding also has some disadvantages. 

This process:

  • Requires experience and precision.
  • Generates a lot of smoke and gases.
  • It can cause deformation of the welded material.

Despite these disadvantages, arc welding is a popular and widely used method of joining metal parts.

Resistance welding method

The resistance welding method is one of the oldest and simplest welding techniques. It involves welding the parts together by heating them at the connection point with an electric current. In this process, metal parts are clamped between two electrodes consisting of a moving and a stationary part. A current flows through the electrodes, which heats the material to its melting point. As a result, it is melted, and the two parts are fused. The above technique is often used for joining metal sheets of small thickness, both with each other and with components of greater thickness. Today it is one of the most widely used methods in the automotive, electrical engineering and furniture industries.

What is the plasma welding method?

The plasma welding method belongs to the group of gas welding. It is based on the use of

plasma, which is formed by the ionization of a protective gas with which the welded surface is flooded. Plasma is a gas whose ions and electrons are in a gaseous plasma state, which has properties similar to liquid metal.

What is plasma welding used for? 

The plasma welding process is used primarily for welding thick materials such as: 

  • steel sheets, 
  • aluminum, 
  • bronze, 
  • copper.

It is also used for welding irregularly shaped parts that are not easily joined by other techniques. The plasma welding process uses high-intensity direct current, which produces a high plasma temperature that reaches about 23,000 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the method requires the use of special equipment and tools with high performance and reliability.

What gases are used in plasma welding?

Different types of protective gases are used in the plasma welding process, such as:

  • argon, 
  • helium, 
  • hydrogen, 
  • nitrogen

Each is selected depending on the type of material to be welded and the application.


Welding is a process that is used to join materials. There are many different welding methods, each with special application and specifics. This article presents several popular welding methods, including 135, TIG, 111, 141, 136, 138, MIG MAG, 121, LF, arc, resistance, plasma, and covered electrode welding. Undoubtedly, each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of the right one depends on the conditions under which the welding is to be performed and the materials to be joined. Therefore, it is important to be guided not only by cost but also by the quality and safety of work when choosing a welding method. When choosing the right welding method, it is advisable to seek advice from a specialist who can help you choose the most suitable technique and ensure that the service is performed safely and professionally.